As a place of articulation, pharyngeal refers to sounds that are created when the tongue root is pushed back toward the wall of the pharynx. Sounds made in this manner are only ever fricatives (e.g. [ħ] and [ʕ]). These sounds are fairly rare and are considered dorsal because of i) their backness in the vocal tract and ii) the use of the tongue root, a posterior part of the tongue. Neither English nor Gaelic manifest pharyngeal consonants.
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- Crystal, David. (1997) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993) A Course in Phonetics Third Edition. London: Harcourt Press.
- Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.