Consonant (definition)

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A consonant is a sound that involves a significant occlusion (closure or constriction) of the vocal tract. In English, /p, t, k, b, d, g, w, j, s, l, n, ɹ, ŋ, m, f, v, ʃ, dʒ, tʃ, θ, ð/ are all consonants. For a complete description of Gaelic consonants see the main article at consonants

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  • Crystal, D. (2008) Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Ladefoged, D. (2010) A Course in Phonetics. 6th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
  • Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.