A flap is a sound made using extremely quick contact, usually with the tip of the tongue ''flapping'' against a place of articulation. In English this is generally against the alveolar ridge.The flap is an allophone of [t] and [d] , as in butter or ladder. A flap is transcribed in IPA as [ɾ].
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- Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ladefoged, D. (2010) A Course in Phonetics. 6th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.