Glottal sounds are formed at the glottis, also known as the "vocal cords" or the "voice box". Their articulation requires the constriction or closure of the vocal folds in a manner that is distinct from voicing. Such sounds are considered dorsal because of their backness in the vocal tract. English has two glottal sounds: the glottal stop [ʔ] and glottal fricative [h]. Gaelic includes [h] in its phoneme inventory as well.
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- Crystal, David. (1997) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993) A Course in Phonetics Third Edition. London: Harcourt Press.
- Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.