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The imperative paradigm for the verb 'to put' is as follows:

cuirim let me put cuireamaid let us put
cuir (thusa) you put cuiribh let you (pl) put
cuireadh (esan/ise)' let him put cuireadh (iadsan) let them put

Even though there are imperative forms for all different person and number features on the verb, the youth tend to only use the second person singular and plural.

There are three main types of deference in SG imperatives, ranging from a very polite request to an overt command:

Most polite:

Nach dèan sibh suidhe?
NEG make 2p
'Won't you make a sitting?'


Dèan suidhe!
'Make a sitting!'

Overt Command:


Optional and Obligatory Subjects

For the second person forms, the subject is optional. When the optional subject is used in these sentences, the subject becomes emphatic and the sentence is called a "particularizing imperative":

"Stand up!"


Seas thusa!
stand.imp.2s 2s.emph
"You stand up!"

However, when the third person form is used, then the subject becomes obligatory, either in pronominal form or as a noun.

Seasadh e!
stand.imp.3s 3sm
"Let him stand up!"


Seasadh Iain!
stand.imp.3s Iain
"Let John stand up!"

When a noun is used, we say that this is an "identifying imperative". A single imperative can incorporate both the "identifying" and "particularizing" features:

Seas thusa, Iain!
stand.imp.2s 2s.emph Iain
"You stand up, John!"

Negative Imperatives

Negative imperatives are created by placing the negative particle na in front of the verb:

Na ith
NEG eat.imp
'Don't eat!'

External Links

Warning: At least one of the links below takes you to Wikipedia. Articles on wikipedia often contain inaccuracies or are subject to vandalism. especially about language issues.


  • Fisher, Muriel (2004) Scottish Gaelic Level 1. Seattle: Each-Mara Publications