A velar sound is produced by moving the back of the tongue toward the velum or soft palate to create a complete closure or looser constriction. The velum is near the back of the vocal tract and velar sounds are classified as dorsal because of this backness. The velar sounds in English are [k, g, ŋ]. Gaelic makes use of the same sounds with the addition of [x, ɣ]. Moreover, Gaelic's broad consonants are understood to be velarized and include [nˠ, l̪ˠ, rˠ].
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- Crystal, David. (1997) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993) A Course in Phonetics Third Edition. London: Harcourt Press.