Difference between revisions of "Imperatives"

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(Optional and Obligatory Subjects)
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*For a definition of Imperatives see [[Imperative Mood (definition)]].
*For a definition of Imperatives see [[Imperative Mood (definition)]].
The imperative paradigm for the verb 'to put' is as follows:  
The imperative paradigm for the verb 'to put' is as follows:  

Revision as of 08:43, 17 October 2012


The imperative paradigm for the verb 'to put' is as follows:

cuirim let me put cuireamaid let us put
cuir (thusa) you put cuiribh let you (pl) put
cuireadh (esan/ise)' let him put cuireadh (iadsan) let them put

Even though there are imperative forms for all different person and number features on the verb, the youth tend to only use the second person singular and plural.

Optional and Obligatory Subjects

For the second person forms, the subject is optional:

"Stand up!"


Seas thusa!
stand.imp.2s 2s.emph
"You stand up!"

When the optional subject is used in these sentences, the subject becomes emphatic and the sentence is called a "particularizing imperative". However, when the third person form is used, then the subject becomes obligatory, either in pronominal form or as a noun.

Seasadh e!
stand.imp.3s 3sm
"Let him stand up!"


Seasadh Iain!
stand.imp.3s Iain
"Let John stand up!"

When a noun is used, we say that this is an "identifying imperative". A single imperative can incorporate both the "identifying" and "particularizing" features:

Seas thusa, Iain!
stand.imp.2s 2s.emph Iain
"You stand up, John!"

Negative Imperatives

Negative imperatives are created by placing the negative particle na in front of the verb:

Na ith
NEG eat.imp
'Don't eat!'

External Links

Warning: At least one of the links below takes you to Wikipedia. Articles on wikipedia often contain inaccuracies or are subject to vandalism. especially about language issues.


  • Fisher, Muriel (2004) Scottish Gaelic Level 1. Seattle: Each-Mara Publications