Ruig (irregular verb)

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The irregular verb ruig means "to reach" or "to arrive at". ruig is one of 11 irregular verbs in Gaelic.


"ruig air" = afford

Summary of forms

  • Independent forms of the verb ruig are used without any particles.
  • Dependent forms of the verb ruig are used after an, nach, gun, "cha" and other verbal particles.

context independent Dependent
basic forms active past ràinig d'ràinig or do ràinig
Future ruigidh2 ruig
Relative Future --- ruigeas2
impersonal1 past ràinigeadh d'ràinigeadh or do ràinigeadh
future ruigear
relative future --- ruigear
Conditional Mood active ruigeadh2
(ruiginn1 in 1st sing)
(ruigeamaid1 in 1 pl)
impersonal ruigte
Imperative Mood 2nd person singular ruig ---
plural ruigibh1
verbal noun ruigsinn or ruighinn or ruigheachd


  • 1 these forms are not used with any subject, they contain the subject in the inflection of the verb (Pro-Drop)
  • 2 takes tu rather than thu in the 2nd person.

Non Conditional Moods (indicative, interrogative, negative)

Active Voice

Past tense

Declarative Question Negative Negative Question embedded
1 ràinig mi an do ràinig mi cha do ràinig mi nach do ràinig mi gun do ràinig mi
2 ràinig thu an do ràinig thu cha do ràinig thu nach do ràinig thu gun do ràinig thu
3 masc ràinig e an do ràinig e cha do ràinig e nach do ràinig e gun do ràinig e
3 fem ràinig i an do ràinig i cha do ràinig i nach do ràinig i gun do ràinig i
1 pl ràinig sinn an do ràinig sinn cha do ràinig sinn nach do ràinig sinn gun do ràinig sinn
2 pl ràinig sibh an do ràinig sibh cha do ràinig sibh nach do ràinig sibh gun do ràinig sibh
3 pl ràinig iad an do ràinig iad cha do ràinig iad nach do ràinig iad gun do ràinig) iad

Present tense

As is common in Gaelic, there is no present tense form of the verb. When a simple present meaning ("I say something") or a progressive meaning (I am saying something) is intended, the periphrastic construction is used with the present tense of the verb bi (be), i.e., tha, along with the verbal noun.

Tha mi a' ruigsinn
be.pres 1s prog
I'm reaching/I reach

Future tense

The future tense in Gaelic is used to express the idea that an event will happen sometime after the speech time. Unlike English, the future tense can also be used with a present tense meaning, to express the idea that an action is habitual.

Declarative Question Negative Negative Question Relative Future1
1 ruigidh mi an ruig mi cha ruig nach ruig mi a ruigeas mi
2 ruigidh2 tu an ruig thu cha ruig thu nach ruig thu a ruigeas2 tu
3 masc ruigidh e an ruig e cha ruig e nach ruig e a ruigeas e
3 fem ruigidh i an ruig i cha ruig i nach ruig i a ruigeas i
1 pl ruigidh sinn an ruig sinn cha ruig sinn nach ruig sinn a ruigeas sinn
2 pl ruigidh sibh an ruig sibh cha ruig sibh nach ruig sibh a ruigeas sibh
3 pl ruigidh iad an ruig iad cha ruig iad nach ruig iad a ruigeas iad


  1. the relative future is used after certain particles such as ma or the particle used with questions a.
  2. after ruigidh and ruigeas, the 2nd person is tu rather than thu.

Impersonal/Passive Voice

Gaelic verbs don't technically have a Passive verb form. It does, however, have an impersonal form. The Impersonal is used to indicate an indeterminate subject. '

Past tense

Note: these forms are archaic and almost never used anymore

Declarative Question Negative Negative Question
ràinigeadh an do ràinigeadh cha do ràinigeadh nach do ràinigeadh

Present tense

The use of a passive in the present tense is odd, even in English. We leave this blank here.

Future tense

The future tense impersonal form is ruigear, both as a simple form and with particles (an ruigear, cha ruigear, nach ruigear, a ruigear, etc.)

Conditional Mood


Declarative Question Negative Negative Question
1 ruiginn1 an ruiginn1 cha ruiginn1 nach ruiginn1
2 ruigeadh tu2 an ruigeadh2 tu cha ruigeadh2 tu nach ruigeadh2 tu
3 masc ruigeadh e an ruigeadh e cha ruigeadh e nach ruigeadh e
3 fem ruigeadh i an ruigeadh i cha ruigeadh i nach ruigeadh i
1 pl ruigeadh sinn (ruigeamaid3) an ruigeadh sinn (an ruigeamaid3) cha ruigeadh sinn (cha ruigeamaid3) nach ruigeamaid sinn (nach ruigeamaid3)
2 pl ruigeadh sibh an ruigeadh sibh cha ruigeadh sibh nach ruigeadh sibh
3 pl ruigeadh iad an ruigeadh iad cha ruigeadh iad nach ruigeadh iad


  1. The 1st person singular form is never used with an overt pronoun, the verb contains the pronoun already.
  2. The pronoun tu is used here instead of thu
  3. The 1st person plural has a special inflected form, which like the first person singular is never used with a pronoun. This 1st person plural form is rarely used anymore.


!Declarative Question Negative Negative Question
ruigte an ruigte cha ruigte nach ruigte

Imperative Mood

  • singular: ruig
  • plural: ruigibh


  • Black, Ronald (2006) Cothrom Ionnsachaidh Peebles: Self-published.
  • Byrne, Michel (2002) Gràmar na Gàidhlig. Eilean Leòdhais: Stòrlann-Acair.
  • Deiseal Earranta tta (2006) Reference Cards: Sealbhairean Roimhearach/Riochdairean Roimhearach.
  • Mark, Colin (2004) The Gaelic-English Dictionary/Am faclair Gàidhlig-Beurla. London: Routledge
  • Mark, Colin (2006), Gaelic Verbs: Systemised and Simplified" 2nd Edition. Edinburgh: Steve Savage Publishers.
  • Lamb, William (2003) Scottish Gaelic. 2nd edition. Munich: Lingcom Europa