Periphrastic constructions represent grammatical notions using a combination of auxiliaries and verbal forms. In both Gaelic and English, aspect is typically represented periphrastically. In Gaelic to mark the perfect aspect one uses a combination of the auxiliary Bi (irregular verb, the particle air and the verbal noun: Bha mi air am bainne òl
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- Booij, G. E., Christian Lehmann, Joachim Mugdan (2000). Morphology. (For a full discussion, refer to pages 654-664.)
- Crystal, David. (1997) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Whaley, Lindsay (1997)Introduction to Typology: The Unity and Diversity of Language
- entry in Wikipedia