Perfect Aspect (definition)

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A sentence marked for perfect aspect conveys the meaning of a state in the time conveyed by the tense that is due exclusively to a past action, or more simply that an action has been completed relative to some time of reference. In English, the perfect is marked with the auxiliary have and a Past Participle (definition): He has eaten. In Gaelic, it is marked with the auxiliary Bi (irregular verb) (e.g. bha), the verbal noun and the particle Air (aspect marker): bha mi air am bainne òl.

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  • Crystal, David. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. The language library. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1997.
  • Reed, Sylvia L. (2012). The Semantics of Grammatical Aspect: Evidence from Scottish Gaelic. University of Arizona Ph.D dissertation.