A fricative is a consonant produced by having a very narrow opening for air to escape through, causing the friction noise.
- fricative sounds in English are [f,v,s,z,ʒ,ʃ,θ,ð].
- fricative sounds in Gaelic are [f,v,s,ʃ,ç,ʝ,x,ɣ].
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- Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ladefoged, D. (2010) A Course in Phonetics. 6th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.