A nasal sound involves passage of air through the nasal cavity, typically by the lowering of the velum away from the back wall of the vocal tract. The nasal sounds of English include [m, n, ŋ]. The nasal sounds of Gaelic include [m, n, N, ŋ, ɲ] and the nasal vowels [ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ, ɤ̃, ɯ̃, ɛ̃, ɔ̃, ɪ̃] etc. Nasalized vowels are typically indicated with a tilde (~) above the vowel symbol.
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- Crystal, David. (1997) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1993) A Course in Phonetics Third Edition. London: Harcourt Press.
- Matthews, P. H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.